Alnwick Castle is a castle and stately home in Alnwick, Northumberland and the residence of the Duke of Northumberland, built following the Norman conquest, and renovated and remodelled a number of times. It is a Grade I listed building.
Yves de Vescy, Baron of Alnwick, erected the first parts of the castle in 1096. It was built to defend England's northern border against the Scottish invasions and border reivers. It was besieged in 1172 and again in 1174 by William the Lion, King of Scotland and William was captured outside the walls during the Battle of Alnwick. In 1309 it was bought from Antony Bek the Bishop of Durham by Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy and it has been owned by the Percy family, the Earls and later Dukes of Northumberland since then. The first Percy lord of Alnwick restored the castle and the Abbot's Tower, the Middle Gateway and the Constable's Tower survive from this period. In 1404–5 the Percys rebelled against Henry IV, who besieged and then took the castle.
During the Wars of the Roses it was held against King Edward until its surrender in mid-September 1461 after the Battle of Towton. Re-captured by Sir William Tailboys during the winter he surrendered to Hastings, Sir John Howard and Sir Ralph Grey of Heton in late July 1462. Grey was appointed captain but surrendered after a sharp siege in the early autumn. King Edward responded with vigour and when the Earl of Warwick arrived in November Queen Margaret and her French advisor, Pierre de Brézé were forced to sail to Scotland for help. They organised a mainly Scots relief force which, under George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus and de Brézé, set out on 22 November. Warwick's army, commanded by the experienced Earl of Kent and the recently pardoned Lord Scales, prevented news getting through to the starving garrisons. As a result the nearby Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh castles soon agreed terms and surrendered. But Hungerford and Whittingham held Alnwick until Warwick was forced to withdraw when de Breze and Angus arrived on 5 January 1463.
The Lancastrians missed a great chance to bring Warwick to battle instead being content to retire, leaving behind only a token force which surrendered next day.
By May 1463 Alnwick was in Lancastrian hands for the third time since Towton, betrayed by Grey of Heton who tricked the commander, Sir John Astley. Astley was imprisoned and Hungerford resumed command.
After Montagu's triumphs at Hedgeley Moor and Hexham in 1464 Warwick arrived before Alnwick on 23 June and received its surrender next day.
The 6th Earl of Northumberland carried out renovations in the 16th century. In the second half of the 18th century Robert Adam carried out many alterations. The interiors were largely in a Strawberry Hill[disambiguation needed] gothic style not at all typical of his work, which was usually neoclassical. However in the 19th century Algernon, 4th Duke of Northumberland replaced much of this with less ostentatious architecture designed by Anthony Salvin. According to the official website a large amount of Adam's work survives, but little or none of it remains in the principal rooms shown to the public, which were redecorated in an opulent Italianate style in the Victorian era by Luigi Canina.
Since the Second World War, parts of the castle have been used by various educational establishments: Firstly, by the Newcastle Church High School for Girls then, from 1945 to 1975, as a teacher training college and, since 1981, by St. Cloud State University as a branch campus forming part of their International Study Programme.
Special exhibitions are housed in three of the castle's perimeter towers. The Postern Tower, as well as featuring an exhibition on the Dukes of Northumberland and their interest in archaeology, includes frescoes from Pompeii, relics from Ancient Egypt and Romano-British objects. Constable's Tower houses military displays like the Percy Tenantry Volunteers exhibition, local, volunteer soldiers raised to repel Napoleon's planned invasion in the period 1798–1814. The Abbot's Tower houses the Regimental Museum of the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers.
Other facilities open to the public including Knight's Quest (formerly Knight's School), Dragons Quest, the Gift Shop, the Courtyard Cafe and restaurant; The Sanctuary at the Castle.
The castle is used as a stand in for the exterior and interior of Hogwarts in the Harry Potter films (though the wide angle images are computer generated). It has previously been a location used in Becket, Blackadder; Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves and many others (see below).
The castle is open to the public throughout the summer. After Windsor Castle, it is the second largest inhabited castle in England. The castle was rated 10th in the Historic Houses Association English Visitor Attractions Survey, with 195,504 visitors in 2006.
The castle consists of two main rings of buildings. The inner ring is set around a small courtyard and contains the principal rooms. This structure is at the centre of a large bailey. As the central block was not large enough to contain all the accommodations required in later centuries, a large range of buildings was constructed along the south wall of the bailey. These two main areas of accommodation are connected by a link building. There are towers at regular intervals along the walls of the outer bailey. About a sixth of the bailey wall has been reduced almost to ground level on the bailey side to open up views into the park. Stable and service yards adjoin the castle outside the bailey; these would not have existed when the castle still had a military function.
Alnwick Castle has two parks. Immediately to the north of the castle is a relatively small park straddling the River Aln which was landscaped by Lancelot Brown ("Capability Brown") and Thomas Call in the 18th century; it is known locally as The Pastures. Nearby is the much larger Hulne Park, which contains the remains of Hulne Priory.
The castle is in good repair and used for many purposes. It provides a home for the present Duke and family and offices for Northumberland Estates, which manages the Duke's extensive farming and property holdings.
Alnwick Castle has been used as a setting in many films and television series
* 1964 Becket
* 1971 Mary, Queen of Scots
* 1979 The Spaceman and King Arthur
* 1982 Ivanhoe, starring Anthony Andrews and James Mason
* 1990 or 1991 The Timekeeper
* 1991 Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves
* 1998 Monk Dawson
* 1998 Elizabeth (film)
* 2001 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
* 2002 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
* 2009 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
* 2010 Robin Hood, directed by Ridley Scott
* 1977 Count Dracula. BBC production starring Louis Jourdan and Frank Finlay.
* 1983 The Black Adder. Starring Rowan Atkinson in the first of the Blackadder series.
* 1984–86 Robin of Sherwood. Starring Michael Praed in the first and second series, Jason Connery in the third.
* 1987 Treasure Hunt. Anneka Rice, Kenneth Kendall and Wincey Willis followed the clues.
* 1993 The Clothes Show. Jeff Banks and Selina Scott presented a world of fashion.
* 1994 Highway. Harry Secombe presented this popular series.
* 1994 The Dwelling Place. Catherine Cookson Mini series starring James Fox.
* 1995 Antiques Roadshow . This featured some of the Castle's treasures as well as the usual exciting finds.
* 1995 The Fast Show. Starring Charlie Higson, Paul Whitehouse, John Thomson, Arabella Weir, Mark Williams, and many more.
* 1995 The Glass Virgin. Starring Nigel Havers, Sylvia Sims, and Emily Mortimer.
* 1995–6 The Famous Five, The BBC series of the Enid Blyton books.
* 1997 Ivanhoe. BBC series starring Steven Waddington and Christopher Lee.
* 1998 A Knight in Camelot. Disney Channel production starring Whoopi Goldberg and Michael York.
* 1999–2000 Badger. Drama series about wildlife police starring Jerome Flynn.
* 2000 A Dinner of Herbs. Catherine Cookson mini-series starring Billie Whitelaw.
* 2000 Watercolour Challenge. Channel 4 education series presented by Hannah Gordon.
* 2004 Bloody Britain. Discovery Channel production presented by Rory McGrath.
* 2005 The Virgin Queen.
* 2009 Dickinson's Real Deal
Description lifted entirely from Alnwick Castle From Wikipedia
Alnwick Castle, chromolithograph by Alexander Francis Lydon, 1870
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